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The use of the expression anti-Semitism to indicate hostility towards the Jews – only the Jews and not as generally thought towards all “Semitic” people – dates back to the second half of the 19th Century, when the word, a neologism derived from linguistics, was spread throughout...

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It is the philosophical and political concept that extends the ideas of citizenship and homeland to the whole world and to all humankind, opposing the particularity of nations and national states.

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The word genocide is nowadays used in a number of different ways and one must to try and analyse them separately, to the extent that this is possible.

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“Pan-Arabism” is a movement the objective of which is the unification of Arab peoples and nations. This is a modern cultural trend with political finalities, arising as an answer to colonialism and the West’s involvement in the Arab world..

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All types of thought –also those of scholars and scientists – proceed according to established models, stereotypes and prejudices.

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A month of ideas.
Giancarlo Bosetti Editor-in-chief
Association for dialogue and intercultural understanding
Life and Society
IT Thursday, 10 June 2010

Erdogan, the Islamic Ummah’s new leader

Marcella Emiliani talks to Ernesto Pagano

President Obama "has not lifted a finger" for the Middle Eastern peace process according to a caustic Marcella Emiliani, expert on the Middle East and associate professor at Bologna University. In spite of the media uproar, the Israeli blitz on the "Freedom Flotilla" has revealed the entirety of the White House’s inability, and that of the whole international community, to restart the peace process. And while Turkey “draws dangerously close to Iran," the Israeli government, "accustomed to never-ending international isolation,” continues to "move forward on its own path."

Iran has announced that in the near future it will send two Red Crescent ships to Gaza. Is this yet another provocation?

International reaction to the disproportionate use of force against civilians has encouraged Israel’s traditional enemies to dare to do the unthinkable. For Tehran this is more than just an opportunity that cannot be ignored. Leaving aside the ploy of using the Red Crescent, the most serious issue is the rapprochement between Iran and Turkey.

How is Turkey’s foreign policy changing?

Bearing in mind the fact that his country is a member of NATO, Erdogan has acted as a Muslim. And as a Muslim he has relations with Iran. This is not a match played out in what we call the Middle East, but in a far larger Islamic Ummah. Of course, it is one thing to reason in terms of geostrategic issues and political opportunities, and another to consider public opinion throughout the Middle East, enraged with the excessively violent military operations against the people of Gaza.

So public opinion has greatly influenced Prime Minister Erdogan’s change of pace...

Erdogan has been influenced by the very social stratum that supports him. The NGO that organised the “Free Gaza" movement, managed to provide seven vessels carrying ten tons of necessary supplies. This is a wealthy NGO, financed by important Turkish businessmen who politically support the Prime Minister. Within such a framework Erdogan does not have much choice.

What do you think of Egypt’s position as another strategic player?

Mubarak’s move in opening the Rafah border crossing proves where the real problem lies, still missing on the international community’s agenda: the Gaza blockade. Mubarak is also the same person who is building underground steal walls to solve the problem of the tunnels under the border. As one can see, his political attitude is very ambivalent. The Israeli government instead continues to speak through its Foreign Minister, saying that there is no humanitarian emergency. There is instead an emergency and it will always lead to unprecedented political tensions.

Is there perhaps a desire to create two Palestines behind the Gaza blockade? A weak and docile West Bank and a “rogue” Gaza Strip?"

The idea, especially for the current Netanyahu government, is to have neither one nor more Palestinian states. The indiscriminate rise in settlements proves this. It is sufficient to consider the situation in the West Bank. The PNA’s Prime Minister Salam Fayyad no longer speaks of a Palestinian State, but, at best, of an integration of economies. As far as the Gaza Strip is concerned, the first and failed objective was to defeat Hamas. The current idea is to ensure that the people are so weary they repudiate Hamas.

Sheikh Raed Salah, a reference point for Arab Israelis, was among the crew members of the Freedom Flotilla. What role do Arab Israelis play in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?

Israeli Arabs have always been known as the invisible Arabs. There are now one and a half million in Israel. They live like second class citizens, not permitted to do their military service, the only real means of integration in the country. Traditionally they vote for the Israeli Labour Party. Little by little, however, and above all since the second intifada, they have become politicised in favour of the Palestinian cause. It is not however clear to what extent they support Hamas and instead to what extent they maintain their traditional secular characteristics.

How do you judge the White House’s behaviour?

During his election campaign, President Obama had promised to restart the peace process between Israelis and Palestinians. He has not lifted a finger. Apart from problems linked to internal politics and disasters such as the oil slick and the economic crisis, since the beginning of his mandate, Obama has said that his priority in the Middle East is Afghanistan, followed by Iraq and then, last of all the “old” Israeli-Palestinian conflict. For a prime minister such as Netanyahu this means having a free rein.

But won’t the recent blitz and widespread condemnation by the international community stop the Israeli government?

This is not the first time that Israel puts up with never-ending international isolation. When it comes to voting for an International Investigative Committee to inquire about what happened during the blitz, the United States, followed by Italy, will vote for the inquiry to be carried out by Israelis and not by international judges. That is sufficient for Israel to continue on its own path.

What do you think of Obama’s statement about the need to establish a dialogue with Hamas...

These statements are old hat. If there is disappointment throughout the entire Middle East it is is precisely over Obama, who is incapable of establishing policies in this region. Furthermore, not even Secretary of State Clinton addresses the matter, but delegates everything to “poor" Special Envoy Mitchell, who in spite of his many missions has been unable to achieve anything. Not to mention the old troika consisting of the United States, Europe and Russia that had appointed Tony Blair as the great "weaver of peace plans for the Middle East." Have you ever seen anyone actually go there?

Translated by Francesca Simmons

Readers' comments
Patricia Wilson

With recession and BP's oil spill locking out all other businesses--most of which are small and/or family owned throughout the South, not just Louisiana, Obama has a lot to handle and Israel is not working with Mitchell or Clinton. I have assumed since the attack on the flotilla that Netanyahu returned to Israel avoiding Obama because he didn't want any "scolding" from him this time as he received the previous time. No, not much has come out in the media and there really isn't much to say.He has mentioned that he will judge Israel's actions by the international report regarding Israel's actions which is an improvement over Obama's dismissal of the Goldstone report. He has to figure out a way to talk/work with Hamas despite the regulation the Congress put up during Bush's term that refused to allow any president to talk with terrorist groups. It was stupid then just as it is now. Executive orders are always a possibility and Obama can't run everybody's country. He has a lot here and the Republicans are making it as difficult as they can for him. Israel is making things worse for themselves with their minuscule actions of their own at the gates and the blockade that keep out food, medicine and water. Since when is juice and cookies and jam nutritional??? The ones to watch and who may be most effective is Erdogan of Turkey. He has worked well for the betterment of Palestine not just for his own political benefit but for Palestine's appearance around the world. Not so much the flotillas per se but his responses and demands that are very pragmatic. Obama and Clinton should never have gone against his and Brazil's treaty for nuclear material to be shipped to Turkey. If the "big boys" don't have the means to get things done in Iran, let the up-and-comers do so. Erdogan did and should be praised for it. It keeps Iran at the table and out of their defensive speeches that do no one any good. All must work for the betterment of each of the Middle Eastern countries separate or together. Which ever way it works will be the more peaceful way of keeping everyone economically feasible, and not on the "war path."

Saturday, 19 June 2010

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