Lebanon is hosting approximately 1.5 million Syrian refugees, (almost 25 per cent of Lebanon’s population), of which one million are officially registered with the United Nation, and mostly live in informal camps (known as informal tented settlements) scattered around the country.
It took no longer than two days to bring the territory back under the control of the Regional Government of Kurdistan at the end of 2014. In the space of 48 hours, the Iraqi army and the Hashd al-Shaabi shi’ite militia integrated into it took control of Kirkuk, it was swiftly followed by the recapture of Dibus, Makhmur, Khanaqin, Jalawla, Gwer, Bashiqa and Sinjar.
The history of borders – ancient, modern, colonial and so on – along with the tragedies of those straddling them, is nothing new. Every time there is a change of flag, the integration processes are further complicated, often resulting in unresolved identity issues, discontent, legals claims and conflicts.
Syria is only discussed in geopolitical terms, associating its daily history to the ruthless military operations of the great powers or the periodic massacres carried out by the Assad regime against its own citizens, inflicted with impunity in the country’s remote provinces as well as in the capital’s suburbs.
Islam in Europe has very different characteristics from where it is the majority religion. Specifically, the position of Islam in the public space in Europe is that of a minority in a pluralistic and secularized context
“I urge my brothers and sisters in Europe (…) to have five children, not three. Because you are Europe’s future.” It was with these words spoken in March 2017, that Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan