- Identity politics emphasizes difference: that is not a good way of keeping and promoting social and political cohesion. I agree with Mark Lilla, says Maurizio Ferrera commenting on his book ” The Once and Future Liberal. The question is how to revive equal and free citizenship and update the new challenges and new configurations of risks, needs and opportunities in the 21st century.
- A problem not only amongst American liberals but increasingly amongst the Left throughout the West: identity versus citizenship. Differences amongst people became more important than what they have in common. The Identity Politics created a vacuum which the radical right took over, says Mark Lilla in his book “The Once and Future Liberal”.
- In Plato’s metaphor of the cave, a philosopher leaves the cave and brings back news from the world outside. A single fugitive can bring one truth, but several fugitive-philosophers would bring back diverse accounts. None of them can be proven the one unquestionably true account of what is outside the cave. That authority in the cave rules legitimately when confined to the area of overlapping of these accounts: that is what John Rawls calls public “reason”. This way of justifying a pluralistic stance, avoids the trap of turning the defense of pluralism into a non-plural truth and understands it as “most reasonable for us”.
- Today people’s political identities make them say whatever the tribe is supposed to believe in at the moment. If there is hate for the other tribe, the other party, we cannot be one self-governing people, says Anthony Appiah: a Democracy needs to be run together and needs agreement on common ground.
- Which are the limits of being tolerant/intolerant, asks Marina Calloni from Milan’s Bicocca University, and what does Zero Tolerance mean?
- Venice’s history is symbolic for toleration, tolerance but also for exclusion. It has been putting civilizations in dialogues for centuries, says Shaul Bassi from Ca’ Foscari University.
- The French based Iranian sociologist Farhad Khosrokhavar draws a map of the different types of European Islamic extremists.
- After the 2016 terrorist attacks in France 30 mayors of coastal towns banned the “burkini” from public beaches calling it a provocation against the authority of French secularism as one of the constituent principles of the French state.
- After the Terrorist attacks in Paris in 2015 President F. Hollande proposed a constitutional amendment: revocation of French citizenship to native born French terrorists.