The uprisings that led to the downfall of regimes in Egypt, Tunisia and Libya in 2011 initially seemed to herald the end of a state system introduced into the MENA region by imperialist powers after WWI. Characterized by an authoritarian model of modernization and secularization from above, the fall of these XX Century regimes opened the door to the rise of political Islam. But when Islamist parties that have come to power in Egypt and Tunisia, although with remarkable differences, they have proven unsuccessful in stabilizing governments and writing new constitutions. Are democracy and a religious revival compatible? What will replace the spent legitimacy of these regimes across the region? What kind of state could now take shape in Muslim contexts overturned by revolts and civil war? And what place will religion have in these states?