- Making revolutions and facing modernity was easier for Shia Muslims then for Sunnis, says Prof. Arjomand from N.Y. State University. The Shia attendance for the Madhi helped in mobilizing people and create the Iranian constitution. Instead Sunni Islam is more conservative and hostile against change, with religious reactions against state building, constitutionalism and modernity. And what about comparing the religious differences to those of the religious wars in medieval Europe?
- In Indonesia we have limited separation of state and religion, strong Ulema councils and also pluralism, democracy and fair elections, says Syafiq Hyasim, founder of Rahima Foundation. He researches theological answers ‘within’ Islam. Specifically, two issues: women’s rights and polygamy and the necessity to train female ulemas.