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Intercultural
Lexicon

Revolution

Though its semantic origins are pre-modern, revolution has been a fundamental category of the interpretation of modern times.

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The United Nations

The Organization of the United Nations is the largest international organisation and in fact includes almost all the states existing on the planet. There are currently 192 member states. The seat of the UN is in New York and the current Secretary General is the South Korean Ban Ki-Moon..

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The Honor Code

Appeals to personal honor often seem to belong to the past, conjuring images of gentlemen in wigs dueling at dawn; or worse, of blood-soaked Achaeans storming the walls of Troy.

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Refugees

Transnational migrations and global interdependence challenge the liberalism of western countries, which is becoming increasingly national and less universal.

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Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism means the literal and dogmatic interpretation of holy texts (but these may also be secular texts), the prescriptive indications of which are considered the foundations of all action.

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Reset
A month of ideas.
Giancarlo Bosetti Editor-in-chief
Association for dialogue and intercultural understanding
Freedom and Democracy

Voluntary Repatriations of Afghans
Reality or Only an Euphemism?

Virginia Pietromarchi

Alireza was in Kabul when he received his father’s call urging him to leave the country. A letter signed by the Taliban requested the immediate closure of the English institute that Alireza was directing in Ghazni. After having received a second letter including death threats, Alireza understood he and his family had no chance but to flee the country. The father sold his bakery and the house and paid a smuggler 32.000 dollars to get Alireza, his wife and his two other children out of Afghanistan.

Freedom and Democracy

Can Trump's Executive Order
Meet the Challenge of International Law?

Gaetano Pentassuglia

The latest of a raft of measures adopted by US President Donald Trump only a few days after he was sworn into office, the executive order on immigration has sparked heavy criticism in the country and around the world. The measure is intended primarily to suspend the national refugee system temporarily, and the Syrian refugees programme indefinitely, and to deny entry to the US to individuals from seven named, majority-Muslim countries (Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Yemen) for 90 days.

ARTICLES for JANUARY 20 - FEBRUARY 1, 2017

Trump and the Supreme Court:
the risk of an anti-abortion turnaround

At the dawn of Trump's presidency, we selected a shortlist of our analyses on the path and consequences of his rise to power.

What is now the job of the American left? Michael Walzer on Dissent 2/01/2017
IT After the Arab Spring

Egypt in transition: «The revolution ends with the elections»

Elisa Pierandrei

Many Egyptians in the past few days have complained they did not know who to vote for. They were informed neither by the media nor by the same political parties that should have represented them. Some asked for advice from their own families, others from friends. Others arrived at the polling stations and asked party members who were there. Many Muslim Brotherhood members had desks where voters could get information on how to vote.

DR. Bassem Youssef's case

Egypt is no country for comedians

Giuseppe Acconcia

Egyptian Islamists do not have a sense of humour. While one of the Muslim Brotherhood government’s first provisions was to delete the anti-regime graffiti painted on the walls of central Cairo during the 2011 uprisings, in recent months censorship has been imposed on the independent press, films and lastly on the two best known Egyptian comedians. Adel Imam played a leading role in the history of the country’s cinema while Bassem Youssef implemented a new way of presenting political satire that was instantly a success.

After the Egyptian elections

Egypt seen from #Sisiwarcrimes. Cairo's anti-regime writers

Azzurra Meringolo

Cairo - He has put away his camouflage uniform with its insignia and is now wearing civilian clothes. Framed photographs of officers have been put away and replaced by those showing heads of state he met even before taking on the mantle of his country’s ruler. Egypt’s latest strong man , former general Abdel Fattah el Sisi, has become the successor, by plebiscite, of the man he overthrew in July of last year. The electoral plebiscite, taking 97% of the votes of 47% of eligible voters, is not reflected in the graffiti on the walls around the city of Cairo, which you can only see if you keep an eye out 24 hours a day before the authorities correct messages that threaten to disturb the upcoming patriotic festival. If you are slow, things are more boring and grey than usual.

IT After the Arab Spring

Egypt's Parliamentary Elections, an Overview

Francesco Aloisi de Larderel, former Italian ambassador to Egypt

The main issue is the military’s role in Egypt’s future political arrangement, which will not be resolved by the elections. Egypt remains, at least until a new constitution is approved, a presidential and not a parliamentary republic and the new legislative bodies will not be able to choose a government, the third one so far, which is about to be appointed by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF). The new constitution remains burdened with a “constitutional declaration” with which the current military leadership would like to not only guarantee the state’s secular status, but also its own supremacy under the nation’s new constitutional laws.

Some data for Egypt's general election

After the Arab Spring

Egypt, Repression of Dissent and Free Speech Continues

Federica Zoja

The weekly magazine The Economist reported on the current repression in Egypt, a country addressing the effects of a second lethal revolutionary euphoria, saying, “the re-emboldened security services have increasingly been hammering the whole gamut of opposition, from secular reformers to every type of Islamist.” The enthusiasm, with decisive support provided by the army, that had resulted in the overthrow of the Islamist President Mohammed Morsi on July 30 2013, must now deal with an abrupt awakening.

Open letter to President Obama and Secretary Kerry

Egypt, Reset-Dialogues Endorses Human Rights Campaign

Resetdoc

In an unprecedented statement, over forty senior academics and career diplomats including more than a dozen former presidents of the most important professional association for scholars of the Arab and larger Muslim world, the Middle East Studies Association (MESA), have signed a letter to US President Obama and Secretary State John Kerry calling for the Administration to demand the immediate release of blogger Alaa Abd El Fattah and other political detainees in Egypt, for Egyptian officials to suspend the protest law of 2013 and end the repression of free speech rights guaranteed by the Egyptian Constitution and international law, and end the regime of violence, including torture and extra judicial execution, that still governs Egypt after the electoral victory of Field Marshal Abdel Fattah al-Sisi as President. Reset-Dialogues on Civilizations endorses this campaign and encourages readers to subscribe to it as well by posting a comment to this article in the designated section below. It is our hope that this cause will receive the attention it deserves through media across the world. The original letter was published by Jadaliyya.

After the Arab Spring

Egypt, united we stand, divided we fall

Nawal El Saadawi, interviewed by Azzurra Meringolo

“We are building a country, but we haven’t laid its foundation. We still don’t have a constitution and at the moment we don’t know who will be in charge of writing it. How can we go to vote for a president without knowing what powers he will have?” asks Nawal El Saadawi, an Egyptian writer, activist, physician, psychiatrist and, above all, a pillar of feminist struggle. She has written many books translated into different languages on the subject of women in Islam, paying particular attention to the practice of female genital mutilation in her society. Resetdoc has interviewed her in Cairo.

Middle East Turmoil

Egypt. The artists’ revolution

Lorenzo Kihlgren Grandi

Many Egyptian artists consider the June 30th revolution “theirs” and they are not wrong. The civil and political commitment of hundreds of poets, painters, photographers, musicians, singers and dancers from all over Egypt resulted in numerous ‘occupations’, the starting point for a joyful and determined peoples’ protest. According to Morsi’s supporters, one of the former president’s greatest merits was his campaign against corruption, blasphemy, the West’s influence and all that is haraam; hence impure and forbidden by God. In line with this objective, the Minister for Culture, Alaa Abdel-Aziz, appointed on May 7th, had started to replace those responsible for the Egyptian cultural scenario, making new appointments based on strictly political-religious assessments. The project soon alarmed the lively Egyptian cultural world, worried about seeing its independence being subjected to a new obscurantism of Islamist origin.  

Arab Spring

Egypt: The Seeds of the Revolution

Andrea Dessì

Nine months after the fall of Hosni Mubarak, and as the Egyptian people continued to express their dissatisfaction with Egypt’s military rulers, celebrated blogger and activist, Hossam el-Hamalawy, spoke about the roots of his country’s spring revolution. During a fresh October evening in Rome, Hossam began by dispelling the notion that Egypt’s was a “social media revolution”. Facebook, twitter and al-Jazeera undoubtedly played a part, but the extent in which many in the west hailed these new technologies was to overshadow the decisive role played by ordinary men and women, activists and factory workers, whose courage and commitment were rarely captured on film.

IT Coptic Christians and Muslims in Egypt

Egypt: The ambiguity of the Arab Spring

Francesco Aloisi de Larderel, former Italian ambassador to Egypt

Are we seeing a revival of hostilities between Muslims and Christians in Egypt? It is true that tensions between the two religions have deteriorated recently, but this does not appear to be the reason for what took place. In fact, it was not an interdenominational clash but rather a deliberate provocation at a peaceful protest held by Coptic Christians who were then brutally assassinated by army units.

IT Coptic Christians and Muslims in Egypt

Egypt: Who benefits most from tensions?

Massimo Campanini

Relations between Coptic Christians and Muslims in Egypt deteriorated during the 1970s due to the converging of two opposing tendencies, with on the one hand the development of radical or extremist Islamism, which from a Muslim perspective exasperated the differentiation and contrast between believers and non-believers. On the other hand, it is however inappropriate to pose the problem of recent sectarian clashes between opposing religious factions, from the December 31st 2010 attack in Alexandria to the more recent clashes between Coptic Christians and the police, in terms of the Muslim majority’s lack of respect for the Coptic minority’s religious freedom.

After the Arab Spring

Egypt: the post-Mubarak period is a work in progress

Francesco Aloisi de Larderel, former Italian ambassador to Egypt

Almost nine months after the fall of Mohamed Hosni Mubarak’s regime, the Egyptian political situation is still hostage to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), and therefore to the military leaders who have been the real holders and guarantors of political power in Egypt since the 1952 coup d’état by the Free Officers Movement. Under pressure from protesters, the SCAF decided to depose President Mubarak, appoint a new government, and is preparing to call parliamentary and presidential elections on the basis of rules it is drafting, announcing that it will soon promulgate the criteria for drafting a new constitution.

FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY

Egypt: too long the trail of blood.
Revolution is only a memory

Gianni Del Panta

Just a couple of weeks ago, writing for Reset, Azzurra Meringolo wrote about how it is becoming increasingly difficult to celebrate the date of January 25th, in Egypt. The symbolic anniversary of the beginning of the revolution that five years ago led to the fall of Hosni Mubarak, following 18 days of unprecedented protests, has increasingly become the symbol of the new regime’s repressive brutality and the weakness of opposition movements. It is also an anniversary that, in recent years, has left a long trail of bloodshed: a balance worsened in the last days by the news of the death and terrible abuse suffered by young Italian national PhD researcher Giulio Regeni. 

Opinion

Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood: A project of patriarchal extremism

Margot Badran

The international attention given this month to the scourge of violence against women was highlighted in neon by the spike in physical and sexual attacks against women in streets and public squares in Egypt. Young women, along with outraged young men, are taking matters into their own hands trying to provide security and fighting back in the absence of efforts by the Islamist-headed state, which seems more involved safeguarding itself than its citizens. We see the Muslim Brothers fiercely protecting their headquarters under attack, including roughing up women, they who pretend to value women. Instead of joining efforts to stop violence against women, demonstrating genuine concern for women, the Muslim Brothers seized the occasion of the UN Commission on the Status of Women meeting to blast these global efforts and flex their patriarchal muscle.

IT Women

Ejected from God's House

Margot Badran

«I thought here we are in a mosque in the United States, and in the nation's capital no less, and the mosque authorities, as self-identified, call in municipal security forces to eject a bunch of women just because they wanted to pray in the main congregational space. Absurd. Is this where our tax dollars should go? To defend gender segregation? I had thought the days of segregation were long gone in this country. I asked myself: Who owns God's house anyway?».

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