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Constitution is a key category, one of the most important, of modern political and legal theory.

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The Mediterranean

Mediterranean: literally the sea in the middle of lands, a bordering sea, and linking these lands. This characteristic makes the Mediterranean a sea that does belong to all the countries overlooking it, but to none in particular, a shared sea, not available for becoming private property..

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In the Greek polis the meaning of the term “democracy” implied the government of a vast majority of the people, the “plebs”, as opposed to the aristocracy.

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It is possible to participate in a brutal event – such as gang rape, lynching, an ethnic cleansing operation – or in a humanitarian event – fund raising, collective adoption, sacrificing oneself in an exchange of prisoners..

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The United Nations

The Organization of the United Nations is the largest international organisation and in fact includes almost all the states existing on the planet. There are currently 192 member states. The seat of the UN is in New York and the current Secretary General is the South Korean Ban Ki-Moon..

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A month of ideas.
Giancarlo Bosetti Editor-in-chief
Association for dialogue and intercultural understanding
Freedom and Democracy

Voluntary Repatriations of Afghans
Reality or Only an Euphemism?

Virginia Pietromarchi

Alireza was in Kabul when he received his father’s call urging him to leave the country. A letter signed by the Taliban requested the immediate closure of the English institute that Alireza was directing in Ghazni. After having received a second letter including death threats, Alireza understood he and his family had no chance but to flee the country. The father sold his bakery and the house and paid a smuggler 32.000 dollars to get Alireza, his wife and his two other children out of Afghanistan.

Freedom and Democracy

Can Trump's Executive Order
Meet the Challenge of International Law?

Gaetano Pentassuglia

The latest of a raft of measures adopted by US President Donald Trump only a few days after he was sworn into office, the executive order on immigration has sparked heavy criticism in the country and around the world. The measure is intended primarily to suspend the national refugee system temporarily, and the Syrian refugees programme indefinitely, and to deny entry to the US to individuals from seven named, majority-Muslim countries (Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Yemen) for 90 days.


Trump and the Supreme Court:
the risk of an anti-abortion turnaround

At the dawn of Trump's presidency, we selected a shortlist of our analyses on the path and consequences of his rise to power.

What is now the job of the American left? Michael Walzer on Dissent 2/01/2017

India: Spectacular Lies Should Help Digesting Narendra Modi's campaign?

Ananya Vajpeyi, CSDS

As India enters its 2014 general election to constitute the 16th Lok Sabha, the spectacle of prominent commentators adjusting their views towards the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and its prime ministerial candidate, Narendra Modi unfolds before our eyes with escalating frequency and vivid clarity. These adjustments — to use a term that is more descriptive than judgmental, at least for starters — take a variety of forms, and come from a range of observers, analysts and experts.


India’s 2014 General Election:
Time to Rediscover Secularism

Ananya Vajpeyi, CSDS

Ever since Partition and Independence, Indian political life has privileged the concepts of diversity, pluralism, tolerance and inter-religious harmony. The way to realise these values, according to the ideology dominant thus far, was to have a state that expressed equal ‘love’ for all communities, that is, a state taking it upon itself to safeguard the peculiarities, rights and interests of groups defined along the axes of religion or caste, or as a majority and multiple minorities. As Pratap Bhanu Mehta has explained recently, in the vision of its founders and the architecture of the Constitution, India was conceived of as a ‘federation of communities’ with a paternalistic, secular state presiding over and managing a mosaic of identities. But, the outcome of India’s 2014 general elections, which puts the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in power under the leadership of Narendra Modi – sworn in as the new prime minister on Monday 26 May – calls for a widespread debate on the meaning, purpose and definition of secularism in this country.

Migrants - The Enar Shadow Report

Institutional Racism and Ethnic profiling in Italy

Flore Murard-Yovanovitch

According to the European Network Against Racism (ENAR), in 2009-10 Italy was the second country in Europe when it comes to the occurrence rate of mistreatment, attacks and racially motivated acts of violence. Main victims were citizens of African descent, Roma and Sinti. The Enar Shadow Report, presented on March 21, 2011 to the European Parliament, is based on unofficial data from studies carried out by associations and NGOs dedicated to fighting discrimination.


Intercultural dialogue: the potential of emerging leaders

Lorenzo Kihlgren Grandi

In the last few years many international organizations have been implementing youth empowerment activities as a tool to achieve their own strategic objectives. One of most structured efforts in this field is represented by the Arab-European Young Leaders Forum (AEYLF), created in 2009 by the League of Arab States in cooperation with the Federal Ministry for European and International Affairs of Austria. At the centre of this initiative are emerging leaders representing the civil society, the academia, the media as well as the social and creative economy, carefully selected on the basis of their remarkable achievements and their potential as “multipliers”.


Iran - Supreme Leader vs. President: 1-0

Roberto Toscano

Elections in Iran have always had a contradictory meaning. On one hand, they have always been less than free and fair, even when the polls were basically correct, (meaning not materially rigged), because of the vetting of candidates by the Guardian Council. On the other, they have been a flexible mechanism measuring the relative strength of the different components of the regime. Not a democracy, certainly, but a sort of pluralistic oligarchy.

IT Human Rights

Iran, Death Sentences and Arrests on the Rise

Ilaria Romano

Death sentences are on the rise in Iran mainly for drug trafficking, but also for moharebeh or enmity to God and even for sodomy. According to Iran Human Rights figures, the number of executions was at their highest in 2011, than for the past decade. They presented their 2011 Report a few days before the March 2 parliamentary elections, which revealed that 675 people were executed and of these, 65 were executed in city squares.

Nuclear Talks

Iran, a Deal Based on Dialogue
Will be a Win-Win for Everyone

Seyed Hossein Mousavian interviewed by Marina Forti

The historic political framework agreement reached by Iran and the world powers last April 2 in Lausanne, Switzerland, on Tehran's nuclear program has the potential of changing the entire  landscape in the Middle East and beyond. Iran and the group called 5+1 (the permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany) have indeed found a formula that would reassure the international community on the peaceful nature of the Iranian nuclear program, while terminating all unilateral and multilateral economic sanctions imposed on Tehran. If they succeed in developing a comprehensive deal by the end of June, as it is expected, it will certainly mark a major geopolitical shift, as it will probably open the way for cooperation between Iran and the United States well beyond the nuclear file, on other areas of common interest.

In depth

Iran, a Journey Through the “Great Change”
Expectations and risks of the Rouhani Era

Marina Forti

Tehran - One front page headline reads “Delegation of U.S. oil companies to visit Tehran.” Others instead announced that “Trade delegations follow one another.” There have even been headlines stating “Crowds of foreign investors prepare to invade Iran,” with English-language Iranian newspapers not holding back in their use of superlatives and one column saying that Iran is the “last frontier” for international investors. Expectations are high, extremely high.


Iran’s Kurds, a minority in danger of losing its identity

Giuseppe Acconcia

Fardin, 25, has left Kermanshah, the largest city in Iranian Kurdistan, to travel to Kirkuk in Iraq. There he will work for the state-owned electricity company where his cousin is employed. “This is an excellent opportunity since in Iran everything is at a standstill, while in Massoud Barzani’s Iraqi Kurdistan there is a great deal going on,” explains Fardin. Thanks to his father’s role in the Iran-Iraq war (1981-1988), the young man was only obligated to serve in the army for one year instead of two. “This exemption is applied to the children of war veterans, but I would not have wished to stay on as a regular soldier. The pay is appalling and a soldier earns 3,000 toman a month (7.5 euros) while a professional soldier at the start of his career earns a little over 300,000 toman (75 euros),” he added.

United States

Islam and America: After the tempest, time to reflect

Brahim El Guabli

It is true that Muslim puritan groups have, over the years and by their unnameable actions, overshadowed the diversity that permeates Islam and Islamic values. Yet, this should not serve as an excuse for rapacious politicians and fear-mongering groups to target Muslims in the United States, as a religious group. It is all the more alarming that highly educated people and important politicians are associated with acts of bigotry, fanaticism and hate dissemination discourse. Fortunately, the clamor did not override the voices of wisdom and humanism. Many Americans came out to say “not in my name”.

IT Islam in Change: Reformists Speak Out - 2

Islam in Change (2): Nilüfer Göle's and Navid Kermani's intercultural reflections


After publishing an “intellectual chart” of reformers in Islam in our magazine Reset in Italian, with its last issue ResetDoC.org has offered its English-speaking readers a first compass to navigate those encouraging dialogue in the Muslim world, with a closer examination of three great thinkers: Abdou FIlali-Ansary, Abdolkarim Soroush and Muhammad Talbi. Here two new profiles of thinkers committed to intercultural reflections: Nilüfer Göle and Navid Kermani. READ HERE


Islam, Sharia law and democracy

Nader Hashemi talks to Lewis Gropp

In his book "Islam, Secularism, and Liberal Democracy", Nader Hashemi looks specifically at 17th century Europe and convincingly argues that secularism on the old continent was not developed against a religious context, but rather out of and along the lines of a religious-reformist agenda. Correspondingly, Hashemi argues, democratic reforms and the separation of religion and politics in the Islamic world will not be possible outside of religion or without religious actors. In this interview with Lewis Gropp, Hashemi accordingly refutes the notion that Islam and the Sharia are non-reformable and in inherently anti-democratic.

Philosophy and Religion

Islamic Philosophy in the Age of Ethical Malaise and Local Turmoil

Like other classical world traditions and civilizations that seek renewal for survival, continuity and contribution to world affairs, the Islamic one is convened and questioned, maybe more than others and more than ever before, seeing its geographical and intellectual positions between the so-called East and West, an archaic dichotomy that disrupts politics and stirs philosophy at the same time. The ongoing dire socio-political chaos in the Arab-Islamic world questions the intellectual tradition of this part of the world, to see where it stands, and what contributions it offers to overcome the turmoil. Reset-DoC is pleased to present three reflections on Islamic Philosophy by Mohammed Hashas (PhD), as part of an ongoing conversation with a civilization that was, and a worldview that is still vibrant and confident that it can still contribute to world intellect and local politics.

Past and Present Conditions for Existence and Difference

Islamic Philosophy I

The Moderns and Contemporaries in Search for a New Paradigm

Islamic Philosophy II

The Question of Ethics: Taha Abderrahmane’s Praxeology and Trusteeship Paradigm

Islamic Philosophy III

IT Middle East

Israel and Turkey: Partners in Crisis

Ilaria Romano

Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan’s visit to Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, the countries most affected by the Arab Spring, shows Turkey is closely involving itself in the changing power balance in North Africa and the Middle East. The model the Turkish leader is presenting to states in transition is that of a secular government in a country with an overwhelming Muslim majority, where Islam and democracy are not mutually exclusive. The goal is to show that Turkey is a credible example to emulate, even if the price is the realignment of the “good neighbour” foreign policy, which has already deteriorated with the Syrian crisis.

Middle East

Israel's Stalemate

Seyla Benhabib

«I was in Israel as a visiting professor at the Meitar Center of Advanced Legal Studies – writes Seyla Benhabib, philosopher and professor of Political Science and Philosophy at Yale University – and I watched in disbelief and pain as Turkey, the country of my birth threatened at one point to go to war against Israel - a country I feel deep affection for, whose politics I have followed since the 1968 War, where many members of my family, including one sister, lives and where my Father is buried. Israeli social and political forces are at a stalemate: whether one advocates a one-state or a two-state solution certainly matters but there are deeper cultural, economic, and theological forces at work which make it highly unlikely that a viable solution can be found soon to the quagmire in Israel-Palestine.»

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