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Intercultural
Lexicon

Secularisation and Post-Secularisation

“Secularisation” means the process that has above all characterised western countries during the contemporary era and led to the progressive abandonment of religious rules and sacral kinds of behaviour..

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Revolution

Though its semantic origins are pre-modern, revolution has been a fundamental category of the interpretation of modern times.

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Pan-Arabism

“Pan-Arabism” is a movement the objective of which is the unification of Arab peoples and nations. This is a modern cultural trend with political finalities, arising as an answer to colonialism and the West’s involvement in the Arab world..

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The Mediterranean

Mediterranean: literally the sea in the middle of lands, a bordering sea, and linking these lands. This characteristic makes the Mediterranean a sea that does belong to all the countries overlooking it, but to none in particular, a shared sea, not available for becoming private property..

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Mestizo

Following the conquest of the Americas, the word “mestizo” was used to indicate children born of parents belonging to different races, usually and an American Indian woman and a white man (or vice versa).

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Reset
A month of ideas.
Giancarlo Bosetti Editor-in-chief
Association for dialogue and intercultural understanding
ARTICLES for JULY 28 - AUGUST 28, 2016

Turkey: after a failed coup a new authoritarian grip, what's next?

After the coup, the two principal actors in Turkey have been the current President, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, and the multi-billionaire and Islamic ideologue, Fetullah Gülen, who has been in self-imposed exile in the United States since 1998. Much of what one has to know about Gülen's media empire is in this monograph from 2015. Reset DoC's articles try to analyze this
ongoing process and its actors: Erdogan with his new authoritarian tendencies and Gülen with his global media network. The international academic, intellectual community ask the US government and the European Union to stop Erdogan's authoritarian and violent grip on the country.

Press and tv

Ailes, the spin-man from Nixon to Bush: a war machine takes the stage

Giancarlo Bosetti

Based on the book:
Spin.Trucchi e tele-imbrogli della politica
by Giancarlo Bosetti, published by Marsilio Editore, 2007.

Press and tv

Roger Ailes, the hawk who created Fox News, brought down by sexual harassment allegations

Chiara Galbersanini

Sexual harassment allegations by female employees have proved to be the downfall of Roger Ailes, Chief Executive Officer and co-founder of Fox News. They have resulted in his resignation after 20 years. Sexual harassment had been going on for a long time and, until now, kept under wraps.

press and tv

Volume trumps reality: on grievous distortions of reality

Jim Sleeper

We publish the review that Jim Sleeper wrote in 2013 for the Columbia Journalism Review on Zev Chafets's book Roger Ailes Off Camera.

When I published Liberal Racism in 1997 (with a chapter on how The New York Times was misrepresenting racial politics under editorial-page editor Howell Raines), I was interviewed on Fox News, which I’d barely heard of, by Bill O’Reilly, whom I hadn’t heard of at all. The encounter was anodyne, but before long I noticed that the network was not. Under its president Roger Ailes, who had pitched his vision of Fox to a receptive Rupert Murdoch only a year before I met O’Reilly, it was rapidly becoming what Zev Chafets calls “transformational” in American media and political culture. By treating journalism as if it’s all about ratings and show, Fox actually makes a profoundly political statement by eviscerating what democratic politics really stands for.

European Union

After Brexit: A New Roadmap for Europe

Daniel Cohn-Bendit, Claus Leggewie and Patrizia Nanz

The Brexit vote makes it all too clear that supporters of greater European integration must bring more to the debate than open borders and Europe’s success as a project for peace. For those of us who support the European project, it is a bitter irony that this vote of no confidence is aimed at a Europe that we never wanted: a Europe of business tycoons, of bureaucratic busybodies and over-regulation, of elites and the punishing austerity of the troika. The failure of this Europe is now being used as a means to crush any enthusiasm for the federalist ideal. It may well be, however, that there has been too much “business as usual” in our camp and that we made our case for Europe in a language devoid of passion. The Europe of tomorrow needs a fresh narrative and more opportunities for participation. Establishing a Future Council composed of a sample of European citizens could support the development of a new politics.

Essays

The Quest for Legitimacy in Muslim Contexts:
A Four-Act Tragedy?

Abdou Filali-Ansary

According to many recent studies, Muslims’ political history reveals certain particular processes and ideas, which is obvious since all historical processes differ, but at the end of the day result in one and the same universe encompassing them all and one that has ended up creating the practices, schools of thought and symbols adopted by Muslims. While, for example, this concerns Islam’s political language, or kingdom of God, or oriental despotism, etc., it appears to evoke a universe that is totally extraneous to everything that Europe has practiced and believed. As one will see, in observing the events rocking the Muslim world, a contemporary researcher has even suggested that there has been a fall and resurrection of the Islamic State (overturning the words of the famous book, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire).

INTERNATIONAL PRESS REVIEW

The Dhaka attack: if IS now recruits among ‘wealthy’ youth

Mattia Baglieri

There is no country in the “Old Continent” left immune by the terrorist attacks carried out or at least inspired by the Islamic State, although the largest number of victims of this unusual violence is reported in Middle Eastern countries (especially in Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon and Turkey) as the control of those territories conquered in the name of Jihad's ideology in Syria and Iraq is becoming harder.

After the Dhaka Attack

Bangladesh's Deep Crisis and its Origins

Marina Forti

Only twice has Bangladesh made headline news in recent years: three years ago, when a complex of clothes factories collapsed in the suburbs of Dhaka killing over 1,200 people, and again last Friday when a group of armed men attacked a place patronised by Westerners killing 20 people, eighteen of them Westeners. The attack on the Holey Artisan Bakery, a café-restaurant in Dhaka’s most exclusive district, was not totally unexpected. There had been many signs indicating that Bangladesh, one of the poorest and most unstable countries in south Asia with 150 million inhabitants, of which the majority are Muslims, had sunk into a political crisis in which Islamist extremism is a destabilising force.

In depth

Turkey’s Geopolitical Scenario after the Istanbul Terrorist Attack

Giuseppe Didonna

There have been 17 terrorist attacks in 12 months, in which 300 people died and about 1,000 were wounded. The suicide bombers who attacked Ankara’s airport carried out the sixth attack of 2016, a trail of blood and death that decreed the profoundly comatose state of Turkey’s tourism. The words spoken by the Minister for Tourism, guaranteeing that “all security measures to prevent further attacks have been implemented”, will not be enough to bring tourists back to Turkey. Among the elements that President Erdogan will not be able to underestimate anymore when drafting a “list of priorities” that Ankara intends to pursue to ensure a future without terrorism and relaunch Turkey’s image there is the resumption of negotiations with the Kurds and a zero tolerance policy as far as jihadists are concerned. This would mark a change of direction essential for the pacification of a country that, over the past years, has all too often found itself counting the victims of massacres that could (maybe) have been avoided.

Human Rights

Yazidis, Carla Del Ponte: «It is a genocide»
But the UN doesn't take action (yet)

Chiara Cruciati

The world discovered the Yazidi people in August 2014, when the Islamic State, recently self-proclaimed by the “caliph” al-Baghdadi, brutally and violently attacked Sinjar, in the north-west of Iraq, inflicting murder, rape and kidnappings that led the community to flee en masse to Mount Sinjar. And while U.S. President Barack Obama dutifully exploited the siege to order the first attacks on Iraq, it was the Syrian YPGs, Kurdish people’s defence units, supported by PKK combatants, who opened a humanitarian corridor that allowed thousands to escape. The Kurdish-Iraqi peshmerga fighters who had earlier abandoned the area due to Islamists’ advance also took part in the liberation of Mount Sinjar.

Europe

The Brexit Imbroglio between Law and Pluralism

Gaetano Pentassuglia, University of Liverpool

At the end of a divisive, toxic and often deceptive campaign, UK voters chose to leave the European Union on June 23rd. The economic fallout from Brexit is already apparent, with the pound going through the floor and credit ratings agencies engaging in rather gloomy forecasts for the British economy. What happens next politically is everybody’s guess.

Evolving democracies

Tunisia: from Ennahda to Muslim Democracy
Is This the End of Political Islam?

Azzurra Meringolo

Goodbye to political Islam. From now on the Tunisian political party Ennahda will be a Muslim democracy, or at least that is how its leader Rashid Ghannouchi renamed it on the eve of the last party conference held, finally, in May on the beach at Hammamet. Seven provisions were voted on, ranging from the manner in which the party will be organised to financial issues. This tenth conference was marked by the adoption of a motion on the basis of which Ennahda’s political activities will be separated from religious work that was at the basis of the birth of this movement, condemned to work in secrecy for decades.

Business and Geopolitics: Iran’s New Asian Course

Eleonora Ardemagni

Once upon a time there was a prince called Muhammad Dara Sikoh who belonged to the Moghul dynasty. In 1655, before embracing the Sufi confraternity of the Qadiriyya, Dara Sikoh wrote a treatise comparing Hinduism and Sufism, the beautiful Majma‘ al-bahrayn (The Confluence of the Two Seas); he wrote it in Persian, at the time the official and cultured language of the Indian administration. Nowadays everything has changed. Iran, however, still has great potential in its cultural and political influence over Asia. With the end of international sanctions, Iranians have returned to the centre of geopolitics, and not only Middle Eastern geopolitics.

How Erdogan's Turkey Is Changing From Conservative Democracy to One-Man Rule

Valeria Giannotta interviewed by Federica Zoja

Dynamic and yet conservative, increasingly turning to the East and yet still attracted by the European option, fascinated by presidentialism but not by the Iranian totalitarian model, Turkish society – and its leadership – escapes all Western categories for which it remains a complex puzzle. Reset discussed the matter with Valeria Giannotta, a professor of International Relations at the University of the Turkish Aeronautical Association in Ankara, while attending the conference entitled “Betting on Iran”, organised by CIPMO (Italian Centre for Peace in the Middle East) in Milan, Italy..

FOCUS ON TURKEY

The EU reopens the door to Turkey but “forgets” the journalists in prison

Giuseppe Didonna

Over the past week newspapers in Turkey have reported alternating events one in apparent contradiction with the other. On December 14th the chapter involving negotiations concerning economic and monetary policies linked to Turkey’s EU membership was reopened. The integration process was resumed with unexpected speediness as part of the agreement on the management of Syrian refugees that will fill Ankara’s coffers with $3 billion to be used to build camps to keep Syrians far from the EU. With perfect timing, a court in Istanbul rejected the request presented by lawyers representing Can Dundar and Erdem Gul, respectively editor and editor-in-chief of the historical daily newspaper Cumhuriyet, for their release from prison.   

MIGRATIONS

The European Safe Country of Origin List:
Challenging the Geneva Convention’s Definition of Refugee?

Bianca Benvenuti

Over the last years, we witnessed the worst refugee crisis since World War II (1); starting from 2011, when level stood at 42.5 million, the number of forcibly displaced people worldwide has steadily increased, reaching up to 59.5 millions individuals at the end of 2014. As the number of refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced persons (IDPs) continued to grow, it is likely that the total number of forced migrants have far surpassed 60 million (2) in 2015. The rapid acceleration in the number of forcibly displaced people worldwide characterize the current situation in a way that lead politicians, journalists and public opinion to consider it as a migration or refugee crisis. This is fiercely affecting the European Union, as a growing number of migrants are reaching its boarders seeking protection. While the EU is facing this challenge, a debate has been going on at both media and political level concerning the differences between refugees, asylum seekers and economic migrants. 

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